Paco visits Scotland and Wales: Scotland and Scottish people


In this topic, you are going to learn about the Present Perfect Simple in detail as well as typical words that go with this verb tense. You have already seen some rules in topic 1 but here you are going to consolidate and extend this knowledge. You are going to compare the Present Perfect Simple with the Past Simple, for example, because the use of these two tenses can cause some problems.

But don't worry. You'll have plenty of practice to overcome any difficulties you might find.

In the last section we will be looking at informal letters, with different formulas you can use to begin and end them. It's easy!

Let's start!

Icono IDevice Further knowledge

As usual, here you have our useful robot to pronounce any word or phrase you might not know. And it's fun! Try it!

Click Mike to use it

Icono IDevice Important

Remember in English we have REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS. What does this mean? In order to form the past simple or the past participle, regular verbs just add the suffix -ed. On the contrary, irregular verbs must be learned by heart because they don't follow any rules. You need to know them to form the Present Perfect Simple so here you have a list of irregular verbs in English.

Remember also how to form the Present Perfect Simple:

S + HAVE/HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE (-ed for regular verbs/ 3rd column for irregular verbs)


You are about to start unit 2 in detail. You have just remembered the structure of the Present Perfect Simple and the difference between regular and irregular verbs. You are going to listen to a good song in the next section. Come on!